Underactive thyroid gland – hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough of some important hormones, there may be no visible symptoms in the early stages but over time it can cause obesity, joint pain, infertility, and heart disease.

Disease Symptoms

Symptoms of hypothyroidism are:

  • Feeling tired.
  • Recurrent and heavy menstruation.
  • Weight gain.
  • Dry hair and rough skin.
  • Cold intolerance.
  • Vision problems or eye irritation.
  • Feeling agitated and nervous.
  • Muscle weakness and trembling.
  • Loss of weight.
  • Sleep disorders.

Disease Causes

  • Thyroiditis, which lowers the amount of hormones produced.
  • Chronic immune thyroiditis affecting the immune system.
  • Postpartum thyroiditis.
  • iodine deficiency.


Disease Complications

  • Goiter, which may occur due to the constant stimulation of the thyroid gland to produce more hormones, which hinders the process of swallowing or breathing and negatively affects the appearance.
  • hypothyroidism may cause an increased risk of heart disease due to a high level of poor Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
  • Hypothyroidism may cause depression or slow mental function.
  • Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral nerve damage causing pain, numbness and tingling in the extremities.
  • Intolerance to extreme cold, sleepness associated with deep lethargy, loss of consciousness.
  • Autoimmune disorders and impaired fertility.

Factors to reduce the risk of disease

  • Strengthen the immune system and stop smoking.
  • Prompt consultation immediately after feeling pain for no reason.
  • Rapid thyroid examination for pregnant women and for people with parents suffering from the disease.
  • Proper healthy nutrition and eating marine vegetables to get iodine.
  • avoiding fatigue and continuous extreme stress.

Medical care

  • Schedule follow-up visits
  • Do not take supplements during treatment as they can spoil your treatment.

When do you need medical help?

If you feel tired for no reason, there is dry skin, paleness, a swollen face, constipation, or a hoarse voice.

How is the disease diagnosed?

  • Blood test to determine the amount of thyroid and pituitary hormones.
  • Testing for antibodies that cause goiter.
  • Ultrasound examination to detect thyroid size.
  • Examination of the thyroid gland by injecting radioisotopes into the vein of the arm and then imaging the thyroid gland to determine the nature and size of the gland.

How is the disease treated?

Through daily use of oral synthetic thyroid hormone.




  1. Mayo clinic, 7/1/2020, hypothyroidism, Electronic Version available at:


  1. Cleveland clinic Abu Dhabi, Thyroid Disease, Electronic Version available at:


  1. Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia, 21/Muharram/1441, Thyroid diseases, Electronic Version available at: